An Islamic Constitution
The principal sources of an Islamic Constitution are the Qur'an -- the book of guidance to mankind revealed by Allah (God), Almighty, to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) -- and practices (seerah) of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) -- the best exemplar of Qur'anic guidance. Together these two sources provide a comprehensive code of conduct, called Islam, for humanity.
According to Islam, the Creator of Heaven and Earth and the Creator and Sustainer of all forms of life is the ONE true God (Allah). In order to awaken the humanity of mankind, Allah (God) provided guidance in the form of revelations starting with Adam down to other well known messengers such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (may Allah's (God's) peace be upon them all).
In Islam, the belief in Allah (God) requires the shaping of human conduct based on this belief. Allah (God) does not accept belief if it is not expressed in deed, and does not accept deed if it does not conform to belief. Human conduct is shaped through acquiring knowledge and reasoning. Allah (God) says in the Qur'an, "Are those who know equal with those who know not?But it is only those with understanding who pay heed." 39:9. Also, "Acquire knowledge," said the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). "It enables the possessor to distinguish right from wrong: it lights the way to heaven; it sustains us in adversity; it is a weapon against enemies and an ornament among friends. By virtue of it, Allah (God) exalts nations, and makes them guides in good pursuits, and gives them leadership: so much so that their footsteps are followed, their deeds are imitated, and their opinions are accepted and held in respect."
Knowledge and quest for a path to individual and collective excellence are the hallmarks of Islam.
Sovereignty of Allah (God)
Obedience to Allah (God) takes precedence over obedience to mankind in all actions. Actions, which are in line with Allah's (god's) guidance, are also those that assure human excellence. Actions, which are contrary to this guidance only degrade humanity. The words of guidance in the Qur'an are comprehensive; they cover all aspects of human endeavor from moral to social and political.
The Prophet of Allah (God) as a model of human conduct
All Prophets of Allah (God) from Adam to Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them) conducted themselves according to guidance from Allah (God). The guidance that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) received was most comprehensive. In addition to being the Messenger for this guidance, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) lived this guidance in all its details from being flawless in his morals to being an excellent family man, benefactor, legislator, statesman and strategist. Allah (God) sent Muhammad (pbuh) as a mercy to all Mankind and blessed him with a beautiful pattern of conduct. Following the example of the Prophet is an act of obedience to Allah (God).
The entire progeny of Adam is entrusted with vicegerency to Allah (God). Particular recognition of this responsibility is given to those who believe in Allah (God) and act according to His guidance. The vicegerency manifests itself in terms of responsibility and accountability for an individual as well as for the community -- be it an Islamic organization or an Islamic state. Actions affecting a group require consultations within the group. Arbitrary and unilateral actions by a person or authority are ruled out.
Character of Islamic Organizations and its workers
The purpose of an Islamic organization is to bring the collective potential of the community to bear for the good of mankind with due respect and regard to all forms of life and nature. Every act that brings goodness is also an act of obedience to Allah (God) and every act of obedience to Allah (God) always brings out goodness. In order to achieve these goals, the following are among the essential characters of individuals and organizations:
Kindness (ihsan):"Those who act kindly receive kindness and more. Neither dust nor disgrace comes near their faces. They will be inhabitants of paradise; they will live there forever." Qur'an: 10:26
Goodness (hasanat): "Indeed, good deeds cancel bad deeds. This is a reminder for the mindful." Qur'an: 11:114
Patience and Perseverance (sabr): "O you who believe, be patient and persevering, persistent; strengthen each other. Observe your duty to Allah (God) in order that you may prosper." Qur'an 3:200
Forgiveness (af'u): "Practice forgiveness, promote decency, and avoid ignorant people." Qur'an 7:199
Tolerance (samaha): "Let there be no compulsion in religion. The right way has been to distinguish from error; and he who rejects false deities and believes in Allah (God) has grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah (God) is Hearer, Knower." Qur'an 2:256
Humility (karam al-ikhlaq):"The obedient to the Beneficent are they who walk on earth modestly, and when the ignorant address them, they say: "Peace!" Qur'an 25:63
Equity and Justice (Qist and A'adl): "O you who believe ! Be steadfast witness for Allah (God) in equity, and let not the hatred of any people seduce you to deal unjustly. Do justice; that is nearer to your duty. Observe your duty to Allah (God). Indeed, Allah (God) is informed of what you do." Qur'an 5:9
Equality of Mankind (musaw'at): "O people ! We have created you from a male and a female, and have made you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another. The noblest of you before Allah (God) is the most Allah (god)-conscious. Allah (God) is the Knower." (Qur'an 59:13)
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) stood among the Muslims and said: "Allah (God) has relieved you of the fanaticism of Jahiliyah (barbarism) and of its pride in your ancestors. Whether you are a pious Mu'min (Believer in God))or a miserable debauchee, you are the sons and daughters of Adam and Adam is from dust."
During his farewell address, in which he spoke to the Muslims or rather to entire Mankind, the Prophet said:" O people, indeed, your Lord, may He be praised and exalted, is One, and, indeed, your father (Adam) is one. Indeed, there is no superiority for a red man over a black man except through taqwa (God-consciousness). Have I, indeed, conveyed to you the Message?" They said: "Yes". He said, “Let those who are present convey it to those who are absent."
Trusts and Promises (amanah and 'ahd): "And those who preserve their trusts and their pledges and who attend to their prayers are the heirs who will inherit paradise, there they will live forever." Qur'an 23: 8-10
Truthfulness (sidq ul-kalam): "Tell the truth when you speak. It is one of the worst betrayals to tell your brother/sister something he/she thinks you are being honest about when the matter is otherwise." Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)